Japan Soap and Detergent Association (JSDA)

September 2005


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No. 22 (September 2005)

Inside of this issue
1. The 48th Clean Survey (Hair Care/Hair Coloring)
2. Laundry: Cleaner and Easier - Differences between Western and Japanese laundry practices-

1. The 48th Clean Survey
(Hair Care/Hair Coloring)

The 48th Clean Survey surveyed a total of 300 persons living in the Tokyo capital region: 100 female high school students, 100 working women in their 20's, and 100 working men in their 20's. The survey assessed attitudes and behavior about hair washing and hair care, and results have been compared with previous surveys, taken every 3 years (previous surveys were completed in 2001 and 1998), to explain hair washing and hair care behavior among recent female high school students, working women in their 20's, and working men in their 20's.
This was a mail survey and respondents completed the survey themselves. The average age of each survey group was 16.5 years for female high school students, 25.0 years for working women in their 20's, and 25.1 years for working men in their 20's.

Rate of Hair Coloring
Respondents reported the following rates of hair coloring: 77% of working women, 34% of high school girls, and 25% of working men. Compared to previous surveys, though the rate of increase among working women fell by 8 points from the rate of increase through 2001, this is still the highest rate of hair coloring among working women. The rate of hair coloring among high school girls and working men is on par with 1998 survey levels, and has fallen slightly since the 2001 survey level.
Sixty percent of high school girls color their hair at home, while 80% of working women color their hair at a hair salon. Working men who color their hair are split evenly between home coloring and hair salon coloring.
Compared to previous surveys, the rates of high school girls and working women who color their hair at home have fallen from 1998, and the rate of those using hair salons has risen.

Hair Coloring and Dryers: Harmful but Essential
Many females - 83% of working women and 74% of high school girls - feel that they are harming their hair. Much fewer men feel that way, but the figure is still 44%. The survey results are similar to the 2001 results; there have been no significant changes in any group.
Most high school girls feel that 'hair dryers' cause harm to their hair (58%). Working women (64%) and working men (41%) feel that 'Coloring and bleaching' caused the most harm to their hair. 'Coloring and bleaching' was the second-most common response for high school girls (45%). Sixty percent of working women and 27% of working men feel that 'Dryers' are a major cause of harm to the hair; it is clear that respondents are fairly conscious of 'Coloring and dryers' as harmful to the hair.
Compared to the 2001 survey, more high school girls and working women feel that 'Ultraviolet rays' are harmful to their hair. Fewer men feel that 'Dryers' are harmful to their hair; the number of men who feel that 'Coloring and bleaching' are harmful is on the rise.
Many respondents use 'Dryers' as a 'Hairstyling tool' and a 'Method of drying hair'; the figure is led by working women. Working women also continue to have the highest rate of 'Hair coloring.' Though respondents feel that 'Coloring' is a 'Cause of harm' to the hair, it is still a frequent practice, and 'Dryers' are an indispensable tool for hairstyling.

Styling practices
We asked respondents what types of styling products they used to style their hair. Among all groups, the most popular response was 'Wax.' Working men in particular report a high rate of usage (65%). Following this, high school girls and working women report using 'Spray,' while working men report using 'Gel.' Compared to previous surveys, styling product usage appears to be booming. Notable is the shift from 'Foam' to 'Wax' for working men.
High school girls and working women report using 'Brushes' most frequently as styling tools, followed by 'Dryers.' Men report using 'Dryers' most (46%), followed by 'Don't use any tools/use hands' at 36%.
High school girls and working women report using 'Dryers' most frequently to dry their hair. Working men report roughly equal usage of 'Towels', 'Dryers', and 'Dry naturally.'
In all groups, the greatest number of respondents report spending 'Less than 5 minutes in the morning' in response to 'Amount of time spent on styling their hair.' In particular, more than half of working men report spending less than 5 minutes. Seventy percent of high school girls and working women report 'Do not style in the evening', as did 90% of working men.
Approximately 40% of working women report caring for their hair in the morning and evening, and they report that less than 5 minutes is required. However, 70% of high school girls and more than 80% of working men responded 'no hair care'; the gender and age differences set them apart.

Salon Hair Care: High Rate of Salon Usage
Ninety-six percent of high school girls and all working woman respondents report using hair salons, and 'once every two months' was the most popular answer in response to visit frequency. Seventy percent of working men report using hair salons, including those who visit irregularly. Most working men visit 'once a month.'
Working women, who tend to color their hair more often, spend on average the most on their salon visits, at 9,622 yen. Working men spend an average of 4,802 yen per visit, while high school girls spend an average of 4,128 yen.

Celebrities with admired hairstyles
We asked respondents what celebrities' hairstyles they admire.
Among foreign male celebrities, David Beckham topped the list for high school girls and working men, while Brad Pitt topped the list for working women. Among foreign female celebrities, Britney Spears topped the high school girls' list, while Meg Ryan was most popular among working women. Working men find Cameron Diaz most popular.

High school girls: Return of the morning shampoo!
We asked respondents how frequently they wash their hair. Thirty percent of working women and working men report 'every morning.' The number of high school girls reporting washing their hair at night rose continuously in the surveys from 1995 to 2001. However, with this survey, the number of respondents reporting washing their hair 'every night' fell by 10 points. On the other hand, the rate of high school girls washing their hair 'every morning' rose to about 1995 survey levels. Indeed, high school girls are once again washing their hair in the mornings.

2. Laundry: Cleaner and Easier
- Differences between Western and Japanese laundry practices -

The JSDA Communication Promotion Special Committee holds several seminars a year for the media. We have extracted information from the 2004 year-end seminar materials to look at how Western and Japanese laundry practices differ and how they are similar.

Laundry practices differ by laundry environment in the region. First, washing machines differ, through all use detergent. In Japan, the most common type of washing machine is the top-loading pulsator type, while in the US the agitator model is most prevalent. In Europe, the front-loading drum type is most common. Because of these differences, there are also differences in laundry practices. For instance, in the drum type of washing machine, the ratio of water used is smaller (less water is used in relation to the amount of laundry washed). Laundry tends to get less tangled with US agitator models.
The use of laundry detergent to clean clothes is a practice common to Japan, Europe, and the US. However, Japan tends to use less detergent than Europe and the US in relation to amount of clothes washed resulting in a relatively low amount of environmental effluents.

Europe and the US: New trends
In recent years, Europeans have become much more conscious of conserving energy. Because of this, European washing machines' water usage has decreased dramatically (from 70 liters in 1990 to 40 liters in 2002). Similarly, temperature of water used has fallen (from 60 degrees C. in 1990 to 30-40 degrees C. in 2002). However, despite the fall in water usage and temperature, cleaning performance has worsened. Cleaning performance has fallen as greater emphasis is placed on energy efficiency.
In the US, the 'Water and Energy Conservation Law' is planned for enactment in 2007. The law aims to reduce energy consumption by 35% from past levels, and in preparation for the enactment, sales of washing machines with high efficiency washing functions (including European drum-types) are rising quickly.

● Japan: More large-capacity and dryer-type washing machines
In light of these movements in Europe and the US, how is the laundry environment in Japan changing? In Japan, the main change is the emergence of large-capacity washing machines.
In 1993, approximately 40% of all washing machines in Japan had capacities of 2 kg loading or less; by 2002, approximately 40% had capacities of 7 kg loading or more. Further, washing machines are now offering more features; washing machines with dryers and high-concentration washing systems are becoming more popular. Drum-type washing machines, popular in Europe and featuring low water consumption and high-concentration cleaning, are gradually growing in popularity. In 2004, sales of such machines accounted for approximately 10% of all washing machine sales.

● Features of the Drum-Type Washing Machine
Concentrated detergents with enzyme and bleach have greater cleaning performance. Drum-type washing machines tend to handle such detergents better so should have greater cleaning power.
Further, the drum-type washing machine, which washes with a beating motion, is less damaging to clothes than pulsator and agitator-type machines. The drum-type washer is also more efficient in terms of water usage. Further, the size, weight, and noise of the machines, which had been hurting sales, have all been improved, resulting in greater popularity.
The drum-type washing machines generally have longer washing and rinsing cycles, which results in higher electricity consumption. On the other hand, water consumption is lower. Thus, it would be wise to take all characteristics into consideration, when overall performance of the various types of washing machines is determined.

● Japanese laundry practices still more stringent than Europe and US
Japanese laundry practices differ from European and US practices. Japanese tend to wash clothes in room-temperature water, while Europeans use hot water and Americans tend to use liquid detergents more frequently. In the past, Japanese detergents indicated the amount to be used based on the amount of water; more recently, however, the desired amount is indicated based upon the amount of laundry to be washed. On the other hand, European and US detergents indicate the amount of detergent to be used based upon the degree to which the laundry is soiled.
As European drum-type washing machines tend to use less water, it is not as necessary to adjust the amount of water used when washing various amounts of laundry. In Japan, larger-capacity washing machines are growing in popularity, and with this trend, it may be desirable to review temperatures, washing times, and amount of detergent used (detergent concentration).

● Shifting recommended detergent amount from based upon water volume to laundry volume
As noted above, Japan laundry practices recommend a detergent amount based upon the amount of water used, relying on the surfactant Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) (e.g. '20 grams per 30 liters of water used').
However, it is no longer most appropriate to recommend a detergent amount based upon the amount of water used. This is because of increasing volumes of laundry with the advent of larger-capacity washing machines and the growing popularity of drum-type washing machines with their lower water ratio, as well as other factors. Thus, the 1997 Household Goods Quality Labeling Law was revised to make usage recommendation labeling easier to understand.
The detergent industry has changed its usage recommendation labeling to be based on laundry volume, rather than water usage, as it was in the past. The industry is striving to make laundry practices 'Cleaner and Easier' with changes in washing machine technologies and improvements in detergents, and there is certainly still room for more research and development in this area.

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