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March 2004

CLEAN AGE Summary


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No. 19 (March 2004)

Inside of this issue
1. The 45th Clean Survey −Working Women Caring for Themselves−
2. Environmental Concentration Estimation Methods
- In order to better measure concentrations of detergent ingredients in the environment −

3. Recent Developments in Liquid Kitchen Detergents
- Liquid Kitchen Detergents Don't Necessarily Mean Mild Detergents -

4. New Board Members Announced
5. The 4th Asia Soap & Detergent Association Conference


1. The 45th Clean Survey
−Working Women Caring for Themselves−

Reflecting women's desires to become ever more beautiful, pampering and aesthetic services have experienced a boom in popularity in Japan. Recently a variety of self care products and aesthetic salons have appeared.
In this survey, we take a look at how women care for themselves. We spotlight their actual practices and their awareness. Focusing our survey on three types of salons - nail care salons, foot care salons, and aesthetic salons, we spoke to 100 working women in their 20's and 30's. Of those, 50 patronized the various salons; 50 did not.

'Refining oneself' Begins at Home
Let's take a look at what home care means.
First, the majority of women said they put effort into caring for themselves more than 2-3 times every month.
Examining this by body part, salon users and non-users showed roughly the same tendencies regarding foot care and body care. However, there is a gap between salon users and non-users in nail care. Sixty-eight percent of salon users care for their nails more than once a week, while 48% of non-users report doing so.
By age group, 8% of women in their 20's and 24% of those in their 30's report they devote time to foot care 5 or more times a week; that is to say, every day. More women are similarly somewhat passionate about body care, with 22% of women in their 20's and 30% of women in their 30's reporting a frequency of 5 or more times a week.

The Time and Monetary Costs of Home Care
How much time and money go toward these habits?
Home care means spending an average of approximately 25 minutes on nail care, 17 minutes on foot care, and 18 minutes on body care each time.
Home care monetary costs average about 1,000 monthly for both nail and foot care; body care costs are higher at approximately 2,300 monthly.
Salon users tend to spend more time and money on self-care. There is little difference by age group in time spent, but women in their 20's spend more money. In particular, the difference in body care costs is striking; women in their 20's spend an average of 2,971 monthly on body care, while women in their 30's spend 1,740.

What is Nail Care
With the advent of nail art, nail care has recently come to mean more than manicures. More than 80% of respondents care for their nails at home, mainly clipping, shaping and painting their nails.



There is a significant difference among salon users and non-users in before and after manicure care. Seventy percent of salon users report before and after applications of base coat and top coat. Only 30% of non-salon users reported applying the extra coats. Further, 27% of salon users enjoy nail art, while a scant 2% of non-users do so. By age, nearly twice as many women in their 20's use top coat (70%), while 37% of women in their 30's do so.
More than twice as many salon users than non-users use items such as nail files, top coat, and base coat.
Nail troubles tend to be of a more technical nature, with 'Break easily' and 'Cuticles difficult to maintain' heading the list of complaints, while troubles dealing with the nails themselves such as 'Don't like nail shape/size' are also frequently reported.

The Meaning of Foot Care
Many of the survey respondents report some form of home foot care: massaging (79%), using moisturizer (65%), and having corns removed (49%).



Items used in foot care include: shavers (56% of respondents reported such use), creams (48%), and files/pumice stones (43%). Though nearly 80% of respondents say they have foot massages at home, less than 30% report using massage oils. By age, 71% of women in their 20's report using shavers, much higher than the 43% of women in their 30's. However, nearly 10% more women in their 30's report using files/pumice stones and massage oils respectively.
Around 70% of respondents report such foot care annoyances as swelling, hair removal and heel corns. About half the respondents are concerned with chills and dryness.

Body Care
The majority of respondents reported some form of home body care: massaging (66% of women surveyed), using cosmetics (63%), taking supplements (52%), and exercise (50%).



Sixty-five percent of respondents report using shavers, and nearly 50% say they use supplements, creams and bath additives.
More women in their 20's use shavers than women in their 30's, at 78% versus 53%. Roughly 10% more women in their 20's use cosmetic items such as emulsion (42%), skin toner (39%), massage oil (37%), and slimming lotion (32%) than women in their 30's. However, more women in their 30's (56%) report using dietary supplements than women in their 20's (42%).
Women reported a variety of body concerns, ranging from hair removal (73%), to weight loss (61%), dryness (55%), swelling (48%), flabbiness (46%) and complexion whitening (43%). And everyone voiced various complaints about their skin itself.

Reasons for Care
When asked why they care for their bodies, many women responded with 'for appearances/etiquette,' whether regarding nail, foot, or body care. However, those who responded with other reasons differed depending on body part.
Women were most concerned with fashion vis-_-vis nail care, rather than with hiding flaws or problems.
Women gave reasons such as 'to feel prettier,' 'to cover flaws/problems,' and 'for relaxation' as to why they cared for their feet.
'To feel prettier' was the main reason respondents cared for their bodies.
Home care respondents voiced proactive reasons for starting home care originally, such as 'to pay more attention to my own body,' 'I saw a magazine article or special edition,' 'I compared myself to others.'
Salon facial/skin care customers reported such feelings as 'fun,' 'relaxing,' and 'refreshing' much more often than those who had home facial/skin care. This is evidence that salon patrons tend to visit salons for the effects on their mood.

2. Environmental Concentration Estimation Methods
- In order to better measure concentrations of detergent ingredients in the environment −

The Japan Soap and Detergent Association (JSDA) measures biological risks from detergent ingredients annually with a surfactant concentration actual survey. Four times a year, we take and analyze samples from seven points along four rivers in the capital area, including the Tama River. This is extremely useful for better understanding the actual effects of detergent ingredients on the environment.
We then use a simulation program to estimate concentrations of detergent ingredients in rivers and streams that cannot be actually surveyed and to examine the original survey's adequacy.

The Effects of Detergent Ingredients on the Environment
The JSDA has confirmed that the levels of surfactant in detergent actually reaching rivers are lower than levels thought to impact the environment. This is due largely to wastewater treatment and biodegradation. However, in order to dispel worries about surfactant, we must continuously evaluate the levels of detergent ingredients in our rivers.
We are concerned with household effluent detergent ingredients, and the degree to which they impact the environment when they reach rivers and the sea. It has been determined that up to 0.25 mg of LAS per liter of water will not affect fish and other marine life. (*)
One way to find out just how much detergent ingredients are in our rivers and lakes is to carry out an Environmental Monitoring survey. This is a widely-used survey in which water samples from rivers and lakes are taken and the amount of surfactant within are analyzed. The Government and other organizations conduct such environmental monitoring surveys, but their objective is usually not to analyze detergent ingredients. Even with surveys that do target ingredients, often the analysis methods are not appropriate, the survey period is limited, or for other reasons actual conditions cannot be properly measured.
* Netherlands Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment and Nederlandse Vereniging van Zeepfabrikanten (N.V.Z.) Cooperative Research

Modeling Survey and Model Estimates
The JSDA's goal is to properly understand the environmental effects of detergent ingredients. In order to do so, the Environment and Safety Specialist Sub-Committee within the Environmental Committee has been implementing monitoring surveys since 1994. The results are presented in the Annual Environmental Report and are evaluated from all angles.
Around 1995, Akiko Yamamoto, an Environment and Safety Specialist Sub-Committee member, and a group of P&G researchers developed a simulation program to estimate the environmental effect of detergent ingredients on Japan's rivers. The Environmental Committee then applied the model to ecology risk evaluation. Not all of Japan's main rivers can be surveyed through monitoring. In order to offset this, a highly reliable estimation method is necessary. This program would be highly useful even for generating concentration estimates of detergent ingredients not directly studied, so even more precise research was carried out. LAS and AE were examined from around 1995, and this method proved to be very useful.

Casting Light on the State of Japan's Urban Rivers
One of the subject rivers in this model, the Tama River, can be called a prototype of the Japanese urban river. There are many residential areas along its basin and household effluents flow into the river daily. Furthermore, drinking water is collected upstream.
This model examines how household detergent ingredients dissolve and to what degree they remain in the environment from the time they leave the home to when they reach the sea. Using data input into a related model, this model estimates effluent concentration in the Tama River by 1 kilometer, a distance of approximately 90 kilometers from river source to Tokyo Bay. The estimate findings are representative of not only the Tama River, but also all urban rivers in Japan.
The JSDA's environmental monitoring results and this model's estimated concentrations are relatively similar. The monitoring data can validate representative condition estimates of the river, lending veracity to risk evaluations. Carrying out environmental monitoring and further confirming the results with a simulation program is considered very unusual around the world.
This simulation also confirmed that levels of LAS are in fact lower than levels considered cause for concern for impacting fish and other marine beings in Japan's main rivers.


3. Recent Developments in Liquid Kitchen Detergents
- Liquid Kitchen Detergents Don't Necessarily Mean Mild Detergents -


Mild is pH 6-8
L
iquid kitchen detergents have heretofore been called by the all-encompassing term 'Mild Detergents.' Mild detergents are differentiated from laundry and household detergents characterized by weak alkaline levels.
By nature, liquids are measured by pH, with under 3 considered acidic and 11+ considered alkaline. Levels 3-6 are mildly acidic, and 8-11 mildly alkaline. The 6-8 range is neutral, according to the Household Goods Quality Labeling Law.

A Liquid Kitchen Detergent even for Fruits and Vegetables
L
iquid kitchen detergents first appeared in Japan around 1955 and became more popular with the introduction of Western foods. Western foods tend to be greasier, and simply rinsing dishes was not sufficient to clean them. A big selling point for the liquid kitchen detergent was its dual use for washing vegetables and fruits. Roundworm eggs and fertilizer traces were a sanitation concern at the time, and liquid kitchen detergents were effective in washing foods.
Liquid kitchen detergents to be used for washing dishes and foods could remain on dishes or foods and enter the mouth and be ingested. Thus, liquid kitchen detergents were subject to the Food Sanitation Law. This meant that they could not include enzymes or bleaching agents, and fragrances could only be used within legal regulations. Regardless of pH, it must be confirmed that there were no safety problems related to liquid kitchen detergents. Most important, it must be confirmed that detergent traces left on dishes, perhaps because the user forgot to rinse them thoroughly, would have no effect on the user's health.
The Food Sanitation Law stipulated that liquid kitchen detergents that could be used for washing vegetables and fruits must have a pH falling within the mild range, between 6.0-8.0. For that reason, mild liquid kitchen detergents have long been the norm.

A Change in Liquid Kitchen Detergents?
H
owever, the Liquid Kitchen Detergent = Mild Detergent scheme is no longer necessarily the case. Mildly acidic and mildly alkaline liquid kitchen detergents have recently been introduced.
Company 'A' introduced a new product with mild alkalinity of 8.5 based on research into the most effective detergent ingredients. Alkalinity is widely believed to cause irritation, but Company 'A's product contains components gentler on the hands. Chafing is less likely to occur.
On the other hand, Company 'B' has diverged from the 'mild' mainstream and launched a mildly acidic liquid kitchen detergent. Skin is naturally mildly acidic, so a liquid detergent with similar acidity would have the least effect on hands.
Company 'A' noticed that a number of consumers remained unsatisfied with their product's cleaning power against tough oil. It added stronger cleaning ingredients to its mildly alkaline detergent, while Company 'B', hoping to appeal to consumers sensitive to odors, added a deodorizing effect to its mildly acidic product. Thus, a variety of new liquid kitchen detergent possibilities were born.
Liquid Kitchen Detergents are no Longer Mild...
Neither mildly acidic nor mildly alkaline liquid kitchen detergents are mild detergents, so though they may be used only for washing dishes, not for washing vegetables and fruits, according to the Food Sanitation Law.
More recently-introduced liquid kitchen detergents are not to be used for washing vegetables and fruits because those needs have disappeared. There is no longer need to be concerned with roundworm eggs in vegetables and fruits, so more and more people are not washing their foods with liquid kitchen detergents. However, mild detergents are still widely used for washing foods industrially.

Liquid Kitchen Detergents and Sponge Disinfection
In keeping with increased sensitivity concerning cleanliness, recent TV commercials have proclaimed the sponge disinfection merits of liquid kitchen detergent products. Germs are highly likely to gather and propagate in sponges, so rinsing and wringing the sponge after use, applying detergent and wringing once again will effectively prevent germs from multiplying. When the sponge is needed again, liquid detergent has already been applied, so it's ready for use. The uses of liquid kitchen detergents have changed remarkably.

Products Change with the Times
Products are always changing and diversifying in response to consumer needs. As liquid kitchen detergents are no longer necessarily mild detergents, makers are conscious to change their products in line with changing times.

4. New Board Members Announced

The following new board members were announced at the May 2003 Regular General Meeting:
Masayasu Uno (NOF Corporation) became the new Chairman; and Takuya Goto (Kao Corporation), Osamu Hosokawa (Shiseido Co., Ltd.), Michinao Takahashi (Lion Corporation), and Satoru Akaiwa (Nippon Lever K.K.) were named Vice-Chairmen.

On assuming his new position, new Chairman Uno made the following remarks.
'With the growing popularity of various chemical products and the richness they bring to people's lives, also come the problems those same products pose to society. The fat and oil products that are ingredients of those soaps and detergents are no exception. In considering the sound development of our industry and products, we must be more aware than ever before of world events, society, and consumers.
These are matters that cannot be handled by individual companies alone. They cross company walls and must be considered and acted upon as industry issues. And before they reach the level of becoming societal problems, it is our duty to proactively act upon them.
It is our intent to respond, with the further help and cooperation of all parties involved, to the various problems and issues that arise

5. The 4th Asia Soap & Detergent Association Conference

The 4th Asia Soap & Detergent Association Conference (ASDAC) was held in Beijing, China, on October 16, 2003. More than 100 people were in attendance, including representatives and delegates of the industry associations of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. The president and CEO of the US Soap & Detergent Association (SDA) was also present as a conference guest.

Following the opening speech by President of China National Light Industry Council Mr. Chen Shi-neng, a welcome address by China Association of Surfactant Soap & Detergent Industry (CASSDI) President Mr. Ji Shi-xiang, and greetings from other countries' industry associations, the conference began at 9:30 am.

The conference consisted of two sessions: one on market and regulatory trends presented by delegates from each association, and the second on recent developments in detergent technologies by raw material suppliers. The CASSDI gave a presentation on "Current Status and Prospect of China Washing Product Industry." The China washing products market is growing continuously, and from 2002 to 2010 the market will expand by 1.35 times. The Taiwan Soap & Detergent Manufacturers Association offered a presentation entitled "The Development Route of Taiwan Cleaner Industry and Experience Application" which discussed how global competitors impact the Taiwan market. The US SDA discussed "The Implication of International Chemical Regulation for Cleaning Products" reinforcing recent observations that actions taken by a government or multilateral organization can affect the industry around the globe. Procter & Gamble delivered a company presentation on global trends in chemical control management and challenges for Asia, and Shanghai White Cat presented an overview of new washing product standards, recently re-written based on standards in Japan.

Mr. Koichi Yoshimura, Chairman of JSDA's Environment & Safety Committee, delivered a presentation entitled "Amendment to Chemical Substance Control Law (CSCL) in Japan and some Progress in the Risk Assessment of Detergents in JSDA" The amendment will take effect next spring and was made in order to harmonize Japanese practices with those of other developed countries. In particular, it takes ecotoxicity into consideration, based on Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recommendations. Mr. Yoshimura also introduced the surfactant concentration monitoring program in representative rivers in Japan. JSDA has been overseeing the monitoring program for LAS, AE, AO and DHTDMAC since 1998, and it is one of various scientific approaches to defending the industry from potential challenges. The presentation concluded that monitoring results so far indicate that none of these surfactants is considered to pose a substantial risk to the environment.


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